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GRADE 9 - 12
LIFE SCIENCE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

Standard 18: Matter and Energy Transformations

A. All living things are composed of four basic categories of macromolecules and share the same basic needs for life.
B. Living organisms acquire the energy they need for life processes through various metabolic pathways (primarily photosynthesis and cellular respiration).
C. Chemical reactions in living things follow basic rules of chemistry and are usually regulated by enzymes.
D. The unique chemical properties of carbon and water make life on Earth possible.

  BENCHMARK CODE BENCHMARK
* SC.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules.
Remote Page: Macromolecules
  SC.912.L.18.2 Describe the important structural characteristics of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides and explain the functions of carbohydrates in living things.
Remote Page: Saccharrides
  SC.912.L.18.3 Describe the structures of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. Explain the functions of lipids in living organisms. Identify some reactions that fatty acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of cell membranes.
Remote Page: Fatty Acids
  SC.912.L.18.4 Describe the structures of proteins and amino acids. Explain the functions of proteins in living organisms. Identify some reactions that amino acids undergo. Relate the structure and function of enzymes.
Remote Page: Amino Acids Protein
  SC.912.L.18.5 Discuss the use of chemiosmotic gradients for ATP production in chloroplasts and mitochondria.
  SC.912.L.18.6 Discuss the role of anaerobic respiration in living things and in human society.
 
* SC.912.L.18.7 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesis.
Remote Page: Photosynthesis
* SC.912.L.18.8 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.
 
* SC.912.L.18.9 Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Remote Page: Cellular Respiration
* SC.912.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell.
* SC.912.L.18.11 Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity.
 
* SC.912.L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth's suitability as an environment for life: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.
 
News and Views
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November 30, 2013
On environment, shortsightedness costs Florida big.
Scott Maxwell, Taking Names.
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October 9, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Fuel Cell Industry Review 2013.
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September 25, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Potential for Fuel Cell Prime Power in Japan.
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August 1, 2013
Duke Energy to cancel proposed Levy County nuclear plant.
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May 22, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
Electrolysers for Renewable Energy Efficiency.
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March 13, 2013
Beyond Electricity: Using Renewables Effectively.
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September 24, 2012
Sewer Systems Legal Filing.
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February 1, 2012
Fuel Cell Today update.
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January 13, 2012
Sewer Agenda.
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December 23, 2011
Scientist: Water account overdrawn.
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Novemver 14, 2011
Submission to the Citrus County Commissioner, 14 November, 2011.
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