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GRADE 9 - 12
PHYSICAL SCIENCE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE

Standard 10: Energy

A. Energy is involved in all physical and chemical processes. It is conserved, and can be transformed from one form to another and into work. At the atomic and nuclear levels energy is not continuous but exists in discrete amounts. Energy and mass are related through Einstein's equation E=mc 2 .
B. The properties of atomic nuclei are responsible for energy-related phenomena such as radioactivity, fission and fusion.
C. Changes in entropy and energy that accompany chemical reactions influence reaction paths. Chemical reactions result in the release or absor p tion of ener gy .
D. The theory of electromagnetism explains that electricity and magnetism are closely related. Electric charges are the source of electric fields. Moving charges generate magnetic fields.
E. Waves are the propagation of a disturbance. They transport energy and momentum but do not transport matter.

  BENCHMARK CODE BENCHMARK
* SC.912.P.10.1 Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize that they can be transformed from one form to others.
Remote Page: Forms of Energy
* SC.912.P.10.2 Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating among open, closed, and isolated systems and explain that the total energy in an isolated system is a conserved quantity.
* SC.912.P.10.3 Compare and contrast work and power qualitatively and quantitatively.
 
* SC.912.P.10.4 Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter.
 
* SC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.
 
* SC.912.P.10.6 Create and interpret potential energy diagrams, for example: chemical reactions, orbits around a central body, motion of a pendulum.
 
* SC.912.P.10.7 Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical processes.
 
  SC.912.P.10.8 Explain entropy's role in determining the efficiency of processes that convert energy to work.
Remote Page: Entropy
* SC.912.P.10.9 Describe the quantization of energy at the atomic level.
 
* SC.912.P.10.10 Compare the magnitude and range of the four fundamental forces (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear).
 
* SC.912.P.10.11 Explain and compare nuclear reactions (radioactive decay, fission and fusion), the energy changes associated with them and their associated safety issues.
 
* SC.912.P.10.12 Differentiate between chemical and nuclear reactions.
 
  SC.912.P.10.13 Relate the configuration of static charges to the electric field, electric force, electric potential, and electric potential energy.
 
* SC.912.P.10.14 Differentiate among conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.
 
* SC.912.P.10.15 Investigate and explain the relationships among current, voltage, resistance, and power.
 
* SC.912.P.10.16 Explain the relationship between moving charges and magnetic fields, as well as changing magnetic fields and electric fields, and their application to modern technologies.
 
  SC.912.P.10.17 Explore the theory of electromagnetism by explaining electromagnetic waves in terms of oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
 
* SC.912.P.10.18 Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing and contrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.
 
  SC.912.P.10.19 Explain that all objects emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation and distinguish between objects that are blackbody radiators and those that are not.
 
* SC.912.P.10.20 Describe the measurable properties of waves and explain the relationships among them and how these properties change when the wave moves from one medium to another.
 
* SC.912.P.10.21 Qualitatively describe the shift in frequency in sound or electromagnetic waves due to the relative motion of a source or a receiver.
 
  SC.912.P.10.22 Construct ray diagrams and use thin lens and mirror equations to locate the images formed by lenses and mirrors.
 
News and Views
News Items

November 30, 2013
On environment, shortsightedness costs Florida big.
Scott Maxwell, Taking Names.
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October 9, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Fuel Cell Industry Review 2013.
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September 25, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Potential for Fuel Cell Prime Power in Japan.
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August 1, 2013
Duke Energy to cancel proposed Levy County nuclear plant.
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May 22, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
Electrolysers for Renewable Energy Efficiency.
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March 13, 2013
Beyond Electricity: Using Renewables Effectively.
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September 24, 2012
Sewer Systems Legal Filing.
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February 1, 2012
Fuel Cell Today update.
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January 13, 2012
Sewer Agenda.
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December 23, 2011
Scientist: Water account overdrawn.
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Novemver 14, 2011
Submission to the Citrus County Commissioner, 14 November, 2011.
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