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GRADE 9 - 12

Standard 8: Matter

A. A working definition of matter is that it takes up space, has mass, and has measurable properties. Matter is comprised of atomic, subatomic, and elementary particles.
B. Electrons are key to defining chemical and some physical properties, reactivity, and molecular structures. Repeating (periodic) patterns of physical and chemical properties occur among elements that define groups of elements with similar properties. The periodic table displays the repeating patterns, which are related to the atom's outermost electrons. Atoms bond with each other to form compounds.
C. In a chemical reaction, one or more reactants are transformed into one or more new products. Many factors shape the nature of products and the rates of reaction.
D. Carbon-based compounds are building-blocks of known life forms on earth and numerous useful natural and synthetic products.

* SC.912.P.8.1 Differentiate among the four states of matter.
* SC.912.P.8.2 Differentiate between physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes of matter.
* SC.912.P.8.3 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing changes in the atomic model over time and why those changes were necessitated by experimental evidence.
* SC.912.P.8.4 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.
* SC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons.
* SC.912.P.8.6 Distinguish between bonding forces holding compounds together and other attractive forces, including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.
* SC.912.P.8.7 Interpret formula representations of molecules and compounds in terms of composition and structure.
* SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acid-base, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions.
* SC.912.P.8.9 Apply the mole concept and the law of conservation of mass to calculate quantities of chemicals participating in reactions.
* SC.912.P.8.10 Describe oxidation-reduction reactions in living and non-living systems.
* SC.912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxyl ion concentration and pH.
* SC.912.P.8.12 Describe the properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity of carbon compounds possible.
* SC.912.P.8.13 Identify selected functional groups and relate how they contribute to properties of carbon compounds.
News and Views
News Items

November 30, 2013
On environment, shortsightedness costs Florida big.
Scott Maxwell, Taking Names.
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October 9, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Fuel Cell Industry Review 2013.
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September 25, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
The Potential for Fuel Cell Prime Power in Japan.
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August 1, 2013
Duke Energy to cancel proposed Levy County nuclear plant.
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May 22, 2013
Fuel Cell Today analysis.
Electrolysers for Renewable Energy Efficiency.
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March 13, 2013
Beyond Electricity: Using Renewables Effectively.
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September 24, 2012
Sewer Systems Legal Filing.
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February 1, 2012
Fuel Cell Today update.
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January 13, 2012
Sewer Agenda.
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December 23, 2011
Scientist: Water account overdrawn.
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Novemver 14, 2011
Submission to the Citrus County Commissioner, 14 November, 2011.
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